What are the 5Rs?

“The “open” in open educational resources indicates that these materials are licensed with copyright licenses [e.g., CC, CC-BY, CC-BY SA] that provide permission for everyone to participate in the 5R activities – retain, reuse, revise, remix, and redistribute” (Wiley and Hilton, 2018, p. 134). We define each of them as follows:

Retain: the right to make, own, and control copies of the content (e.g., download, duplicate, store, and manage)

Reuse: the right to use the content in a wide range of ways (e.g., in a class, in a study group, on a website, in a video).

Revise: the right to adapt, adjust, modify, or alter the content itself (e.g., translate the content into another language).

Remix: the right to combine the original or revised content with other material to create something new (e.g., incorporate the content into a mashup).

Redistribute: the right to share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others (e.g., give a copy of the content to a friend). (Wiley, nd)


Wiley, D. (n.d.). Defining the “open” in open content and open educational resources. Retrieved from http://opencontent.org/definition/.

Wiley, D., & Hilton, J. (2018). Defining OER-enabled pedagogy. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 19(4), 133-147.